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The Modern Generalist
 
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change—An occurrence of noncoexistent-sequential-difference. The difference that occurs with change is sequential, with the parts having no aspect of coexistence. It is not possible to simultaneously observe or measure two sequential parts of an ongoing change. When one part is there, when it exists, the prior part has ceased to exist and the following part has not yet come into existence. Developed change is the transition from one state of an individual factor or situation at one particular part of its continuing-existence to a different state at a different part of that continuing-existence. Change is also the transition of a factor or situation from nonexistence to existence or the transition from existence to nonexistence.

There are two known foundational sources of change, continuing-existence and motion. Because space is the primal existential context for all else that exists, the continuing-existence of space is the existential context for the continuing-existence of all else that exists. All forms of change occur with and conform to the change that is the continuing-existence of space. The change that is the continuing-existence of space is the change that is time.

Motion takes time to occur, and in that manner it is existentially-dependent on the continuing-existence of space. All other forms and cases of change, that we are able to analyze for their foundations, are existentially based on motion. The differences between these other forms of change are due to the particular mix of other factors that play roles in relation to spatial continuing-existence and motion. Emergence, cause, and through-flow are particularly important stages in the development of change.

With emergence, the motion of matter changes the extensional relations between units of matter, thus changing the patter of material organization. With cause in the form it has at its development-of-origin, the push emerging from the collision relation forces pattern of material organization change. With the through-flow situation, the flow of energy alters the organization of matter, and the organization of matter alters the flow of energy.

Change co-develops with newness in that there is an aspect of newness that occurs with any change. Change also co-develops with consequent-existence in that change is a universal consequent aspect of the occurrence of consequent-existence. Change co-develops with the initiators in that they initiate change by way of consequent-existence. All change is determinate and occurs by way of existential-pathway-development.

Change is noncoexistent-sequential-difference, wherein the parts of the sequence are not coexistent. It is distinct from coexistent-sequential-difference, such as the alternating sequence of stripes on the side of a zebra, where the stripes are coexistent. The factor, change, does not play a role in coexistent-sequential-difference. There is no change from one stripe to another, just sequential difference, coexistent-sequential-difference.

change development —Change development is change with enhancement. The enhancement can be simple or complex, as simple as the universal quantitative increase of time that has occurred, or as complex as the emergence of life.

Change is an occurrence of difference, existentially-dependent, sequentially noncoexistent difference. Change development is the transition with enhancement from one state of an individual factor or situation at one particular part of its continuing-existence to a different state at a different part of that continuing-existence. The states or stages of change development are noncoexistent. They are not, and cannot be, coexistent.

Change development is determinate. Existence initiates existence. Existence initiates change. It does so by way of determinate consequent-existence. Existence determines existence. Existence determines change. The existence and nature of that which goes before determines the existence and nature of that which follows by way of change development.

Change development originates with the change that is spatial continuing-existence. The first stage of change provides an existential context for all following stages. Change development again occurs with the continuing-existence of matter, and this change conforms to that of space. Change develops again with motion. The change that is motion interrelates extensional development and change development into a unity, into a single multifactor, multidevelopmental situation. Motion developmentally interrelates together the unchanging coexistent-sequential-difference of extensional development with the changing noncoexistent-sequential-difference of change development. Change next develops with the relative motion between units of matter. This is the development-of-origin for emergence. Apparently, the rest of change development occurs as the development of emergence.

Change development is characterized by existential-pathway-development. Existence initiates and determines existence and change. That which goes before determines that which follows. Change development is the transition from one state of a factor to a different, following, noncoexistent state of that factor, the factor maintaining at least some of its individual self-identity during the transition. The change that occurs follows the continuing-existence of the factor. There is a connection of existence from the prior state to the following state. The sequence of change, of development, follows this pathway of continuing-existence—existential-pathway-development.

Existential-dependency is also characteristic of change development. Initiators initiate change. They do so by way of determinate consequent-existence. There is an existential-pathway-development from initiator to consequent. The existence of the consequent is dependent on the existence of the initiator. With change development, following stages are existentially-dependent on prior stages of the existential-pathway-development.

All of reality is continuously going through change development, noncoexistent sequential enhancement, in the manner of continuing-existence, the continuous addition of new part of continuing-existence. Virtually all of reality is continuously going through change development in the manner of motion, the continuous addition of new part of ongoing motion. And virtually all reality is in a process of continuous emergence, the change development of the initiator motion in relation to pattern of material organization, the continuous occurrence of newly emergent pattern.

Situations can develop through the enhancement of additional quantity, such as the addition of units to a group, or through the enhancement of increased complexity through reorganization of a group. Situations can also lose units, or become less complex through reorganization. A situation can lose these modes of enhancement. Nonetheless, the situations still develop in that they always have an aspect of development based on the simpler universal modes of enhancement, based on continuing-existence, motion, and emergence.

coexistence—Coexistence is a situation in which two or more factors exist in space, anywhere in space, and do so during the same part of the continuing-existence of space. Everything that exists in infinite space, in all reality, is coexistent. That which exists in space is coexistent with space. The continuing-existence of that which exists in space occurs simultaneously with the continuing-existence of space. The continuing-existence of a factor that exists in space during a particular part of spatial continuing-existence occurs simultaneously with the continuing-existence of a different factor that also exists somewhere in space during the same part of spatial continuing-existence.

The term coexistent is not restricted to situations where the primary components are primal-forms-of-existence or material objects. For example the term can refer to the coexistence of the three-dimensionality of space and the three-dimensionality of matter—coexistent factors of dimensionality.

Any factor that exists and that can play a role as a primary component of a coexistence has some aspect of continuing-existence involved with its mode-of-being. Such a factor always exists at constantly new part of its continuing-existence. Coexistence situations derive an aspect of continuing-existence from that of their primary components, and thereby an aspect of continuous newness. A coexistence situation between primary components continues to exist, and exists always at constantly new part of that continuing-existence.

The ever-new aspect of the continuing-existence of a primary component provides the existential context for change of, or in relation to, that primary component. The derived, existentially-dependent, ever-new aspect of coexistence relations provides the existential context for change in intrinsic aspects of coexistence situations. It also provides the existential context for changes that are associated with coexistence situations. For example, a moving object occupies a sequence of coexistent spatial place. At a prior part of the ongoing continuing-existence of the coexistence of two sequentially organized spatial places, the object first occupies one of the pair of spatial places but not the other, and then, at a following part of the continuing-existence of the coexistence of the two places, the object occupies the other place and is no longer at the first place. Change occurs associated with each of the two primary component places, it does so at different parts of the continuing-existences of the places and thus at different parts of the continuing-existence of the coexistence.

coexistent-sequential-difference— Sequential organization in which the components of the sequence are coexistent. Coexistent-sequential-difference of any form or stage of development is existentially-dependent on the coexistent-sequential-difference of spatial extension. Spatial places have unique self-identity based on their existence and their individual unique locations in infinite space. In a sequence of spatial places, each is existentially unique and thus sequentially different. Developed forms of coexistent-sequential-difference are based on matter, on the individual self-identity of the coexistent units in the sequence and on their organization in space, their coexistent occupation of a sequence of spatial places.

Change, which occurs as noncoexistent-sequential-difference, plays no role in the intrinsic nature of coexistent-sequential-difference.

combinatorial enhancement—Combinatorial enhancement is the occurrence of relations between components of a coexistence situation. If there is coexistence, there is relation. The relation is in addition to and existentially-dependent on the existence of the primary components of the coexistence.

The occurrence of combinatorial enhancement is why the whole is greater than the sum of the parts. A simple numerical summation of the components of a group does not include the relations between those components. In any group of three or more, the sum of the relations is greater than the sum of the components. Even with just spatial relations, distance and direction relations, the sum of the relations increases faster with additional components than does the sum of the components. Combinatorial enhancement has a major role in the origin of complexity.

Since combinatorial enhancement is relation that occurs with coexistence, combinatorial enhancement does not require newness, just coexistence. There are two foundational cases of combinatorial enhancement, one with space and one with matter, with the material case existentially-dependent on the spatial case for a place-to-be. There is the combinatorial enhancement that occurs with the coexistence relation of spatial places, the direction, distance, and sequential-difference relations between those places. And there is the combinatorial enhancement that occurs with the coexistence relation of parts of a primal unit, the contact, direction, distance, and sequential-difference relations between those parts.

Combinatorial enhancement is a factor of change development when a relation is new as a result of any form of new combining. Combining is any of various modes of togetherness that have factors beyond coexistence that result in combinatorial enhancement. For there to be combining beyond mere coexistence there must be a factor of combination, which foundationally are relations of occupation, location, interaction, new coexistence, and coherence. When factors newly combine, newly occurring relations occur between them. These relations are new factors, and because they are new, they are enhancements of the situation, enhancements due to new combining—combinatorial enhancements.

When combinatorial enhancement results from new combining, it does so as a result of a role of sequential enhancement. New combining is change development, and change development always has a role for sequential enhancement. Combinatorial enhancement can be a consequence of sequential enhancement. Sequential enhancement, however, does not always result in a case of combinatorial enhancement. It does so only when there is a factor of combination playing a role in the situation.

At the foundational stage of combinatorial enhancement, the coexistence of distinct spatial places, the components of the coexistence are already there together, eternally so. Newness, sequential enhancement, and change development play no roles. At later stages change development and its factors result in combinatorial enhancement. But in many of these situations, the components of the coexistence are already coexistent, as in the cases of new occupation/location relations of a moving unit of matter to space, and the physical contact interaction of colliding units. In these situations there is a factor of combination that plays a role beyond that of coexistence, such that the components are more together, more combined, than they are by way of simple coexistence.

Different kinds of factors can combine and have consequent relational enhancements. The manner of combining and the various differences in the intrinsic nature of the primary components determine the nature of the relations between the coexistent primary components. Therefore the nature of the enhancements that occur with coexistence varies from situation to situation, and these enhancements can be recognized as secondary coexistence factors.

Combinatorial enhancement occurs developmentally prior to emergence, as the coexistence between spatial places. After a few stages of development, it becomes a major factor in one of the two basic pathways of universal emergence—emergence from combining. Combinatorial enhancement at this stage is the consequent of the process of emergence wherein factors of combining play roles.

complexity—Complexity is quantity and diversity of components and relations. Anything that increases these factors increases complexity. There are six basic quantities to the complexity of any situation—first, how many components there are, second, how many different kinds of components, and third, how many of each kind; fourth, how many relations there are, fifth, how many different kinds of relations, and sixth, how many of each kind. More detailed quantitative analyses of complexity are possible, such as how many relations a particular component has and how many different kinds they are, but the six basic quantities are minimal for understanding the quantitative aspects of complexity. A method that neglects any of these six is incapable of providing an adequate quantitative analysis of complexity.

There is more to the meaning of this basic definition than the obvious quantitative aspect. Diversity of components and relations means different kinds of components and relations. The definition includes what they are and what roles they play such that the definition is really about a pattern-of-interrelations, about a pattern-of-organization that has the quantitative factors as aspects of what it is. Complexity is quantity and diversity of components and relations, which together constitute a pattern-of-organization.

Pattern-of-organization, then, is the primary quality of complexity. To get the measure of complexity requires qualitative analysis of pattern-of-organization, with the quantitative analysis of the six (or more) basic quantities serving as a preliminary step. essay

 

compositional subunits—The building blocks of coherent structure, for example elementary particles, atoms, molecules, bricks, logs, units of lumber, tires, window panes, bones, cells, organs, and on and on. Compositional subunits are not broken chunks of substance or material such as pieces of broken glass, (unless, of course, they are reused as in a mosaic or in asphalt roadway material).

consequent-existence—The existence of a factor as a consequence of the prior or simultaneous existence of another factor. The development-of-origin of consequent-existence is the initiation of the continuing-existence of space as a consequence of the existence of space. Major foundational stages of its development occur with the existence of matter, with the existence of motion, and with the developments-of-origin of emergence and cause. With consequent-existence, existence initiates existence—with existence initiating continuing-existence, with the existence of motion initiating ongoing motion, with components and their interrelations initiating emergent pattern, and with matter in motion in material contact interaction initiating cause and effect.

Consequent-existence develops by way of differences in the way factors initiate the existence of other factors. Consequent-existence is determinate. * That which goes before determines, by way of the ongoing continuance of what it is, the existence and nature of what follows.

continuance-of-being—Continuing-existence.

continuing-existence—For there to be existence, there must be some continuance of existence. To not have any continuance of existence is to not be there at all.

When something exists, and when there are no other factors playing roles that interfere with that existence, that something will simply continue to exist. It exists, and it continues to exist. Existence initiates continuing-existence. As something continues to exist, new part of that continuing-existence continuously comes into existence. As new part of continuing-existence comes into being, the prior part ceases to exist. The parts of continuing-existence are noncoexistent. When a particular part of continuing-existence is occurring, the following part is not there, it has not yet come into existence. When that following part is occurring, the prior part is not longer there.

Continuing-existence is a form of noncoexistent-sequential-difference, a form of continuous change with only the current part in existence. Existing in the form of continuous change, the current part has no dimension. Dimensionality plays no role in the nature of continuing-existence.

The continuous initiation of new part of continuing-existence results in a sequence of noncoexistence-sequential-difference with after and before relations between the noncoexistent parts. Because continuing-existence is nothing more that continuance-of-being, its occurrence is uniform and unidirectional.

Spatial continuing-existence is the foundational case of continuing-existence to which all other cases conform.

determinate-reality—That reality is determinate, and cannot be otherwise, is due to several factors and their roles in the foundational development of reality. These factors range from existence itself to through-flow. They interrelationally develop with the fundamental development of reality, each factor continuing to play its role with the accumulation of additional factors until through-flow exists as all these factors playing their roles in concert.

Reality is that which exists, and existence sets the foundation of determinate-reality by setting self-identity. What exists is what exists—what exists is itself, with all its intrinsic qualities. What exists is what is-there to play further roles in the nature and development of reality, doing so by way of its self-identity, by way of what it is.

That which exists continues to exist. Existence initiates continuing-existence. The continuance is a consequence of the existence. This is consequent-existence, the existence of one factor as a consequence of the existence of another factor. With continuing-existence, it is a matter of the continuance of what is there. What is there simply continues to be there. Thus, what is there before determines by way of its continuing-existence what it is that continues to be there. This includes both the existence and intrinsic nature of what is there. Thus, the existence and intrinsic nature of what is there before determines, by way of the continuing-existence of its self-identity, the existence and intrinsic nature of what continues to be there. Consequent-existence is determinant. What is there before determines what is there following.

Motion exists, and thereby it is what it is. Motion is matter passing through space. It is a form of change, with the moving matter passing through and momentarily occupying a sequence of spatial place. As the matter occupies a place, it momentarily shares the extensional relations that place has with all the rest of spatial place. As the moving matter occupies the sequence of spatial place, there occurs a sequence of changing extensional relations between the moving matter and space.

The motion exists, and continues to exist. It continues to be itself. It continues as motion, with its intrinsic qualities such as its speed and direction. The continuance of the motion, based as it is on continuing-existence, is determinate. The continuing-existence of the motion is a consequence of the existence of the motion, a case of consequent-existence. With continuing-existence there is a continuance of what exists, along with its intrinsic qualities. The change from what exists before to what exists following is no more than a change from one part of continuing-existence to a following part, an intrinsic change.

Motion, however, occurs in relation to space. There are changes of the occupation and extensional relations of the moving matter. These changes are consequences of the motion. Which places are occupied and which extensional relations are thereby shared are consequences of the direction of the motion, and the rate at which the changes take place is a consequence of the speed. The motion and its qualities determine what changes occur. This is consequent-existence, wherein what goes before determines what follows. The motion, though, takes place in relation to an extrinsic context, space. It is the interrelation of the existence and intrinsic qualities of the motion with the existence and intrinsic qualities of that context that fully determine the existence and nature of the consequent changes.

When units of matter exist in space together, there is a pattern of extensional relations among them, a pattern of material organization. When the units move, the extensional relations change, and new pattern of material organization comes into existence—it emerges. The factors of determinate-reality of prior stages are here playing their roles, but now they are doing so in the context of a group of material units. The changes of extensional relations between the units, and the change of material organization, are consequences of the motion of the units in relation to the group. Again it is determinant consequent-existence in that the existence and intrinsic nature of all the factors playing roles in the situation determine, by way of the continuing-existence of what they are, the existence and intrinsic nature of the following situation. Emergence, here at its development-of-origin, is determinate.

The next development of the determinate aspect of reality takes place in collision situations. Collisions develop from a basic emergence situation, the simplest case being one unit moving on a path directly at another, stationary, unit. As just described, all aspects of this situation are determinate, with the changing relations of the units determined by the motion of the one unit in relation to the location of the stationary unit. A collision, then, is a determinate consequence of the continuing-existences of the factors involved. Upon the occurrence of adjacent relation and contact between the units, the continuing-existence of the motion, the continuance of its self-identity, its intrinsic nature to continue on as motion, has the determinate consequence that the moving unit presses against the blocking stationary unit. The emergence of this pressure, this push, is the development-of-origin of cause.

While it is the continuance of the direction of the motion in relation to the continuance of the stationary unit at its blocking location that leads up to the adjacent relation, the contact, and the push, it is the existential quantity of the moving matter and its speed in relation to the existential quantity of the blocking unit that determines how much pressure there is. It is determinate consequent-existence, the existence and nature of what goes before determining, by way of the continuing-existence of the involved interrelating factors, the existence and nature of what follows.

The blocking unit prevents to various degrees the onward motion of the other unit. That unit loses motion as it pushes on the stationary unit, and when the stationary unit receives the push it begins to move. It acquires motion. In the collision situation, the moving unit causes the stationary unit to move. There is a transfer from one unit to the other in what is the development-of-origin of through-flow. As in the prior stages of the collision, the nature of the factors going into the through-flow situation determine, by way of what they are, the nature of the consequent factors.

Reality is determinate because of what it is foundationally. Reality is determinate because (1) existence sets self-identity, (2) existence initiates continuing-existence, (3) with continuing-existence what is there determines what continues to be there, (4) motion is a form of change, and with the continuing-existence of motion, motion initiates further motion, (5) motion initiates changes in occupation and extensional relations between a moving unit of matter and spatial place, (6) motion initiates (a) changes in extensional relations between units of matter, (b) change in the material pattern of organization, and (c) the origin of emergence, (7) all these factors together in a collision situation initiate the origin of cause, and (8) cause initiates effect, originating through-flow wherein an energetic transfer from unit to unit plays a role in the nature of the consequences. Reality is determinate because in all these stages there is determinate consequent-existence, and because in all stages where change plays a role (2-8), the existence and nature of what goes before determines, by way of the continuing-existence of self-identity, the existence and nature of what follows. The determinate aspect of reality continues to develop as additional factors play roles, and can become seriously complex as with the development of an organism from egg to adult.

Determinate-reality should not be confused with epistemological determination. The latter is the mental process of figuring something out, for instance by thinking about it, discussing it, or using logic or math. While determinate-reality is a universal feature of reality, epistemological determination occurs only where epistemological factors play roles, and in the universal context, that is an exceedingly rare occurrence.

development—A development is a difference from one place, part, state, condition, or situation to another involving some form of enhancement. The enhancement can be starkly simple or exceedingly complex, and develops overall from the one to the other. There are two primary forms of development, extensional development * and change development. * The foundation of extensional development is the extension of spatial place, and the development consists of differences in various factors from spatial situations of less extension to spatial situations of greater extension. The foundation of change development is spatial continuance-of-being, * the primal origin of change, * and the development consists of the sequence of continuous change from one part of continuing-existence to the next part.

With extensional development, at its foundational level as an aspect of the nature of spatial place, the parts of the continuous sequential-difference are coexistent and unchanging—coexistent-sequential-difference. * With change development, the parts of the continuous sequential-difference are noncoexistent and change plays a role—noncoexistent-sequential-difference. *

The extensional development of spatial place and the change development of spatial continuing-existence provide the existential contexts * for all other forms of extensional development or change development. All developed forms of development conform to the foundational forms provided by space.

There is an aspect of continuity with these two forms of development. Each prior stage develops directly into the following stage. The existence of that which is prior develops directly into the existence of that which follows. This existentially continuous, sequentially connected development is existential-pathway-development. * It occurs intrinsically with individual factors, and also with situations as the combined interrelational existential-pathway-developments of the factors and components of a situation.

Factors often occur in simple form in simple situations where few factors are playing roles, and occur in more complex form in more complex situations where larger numbers of factors are playing roles. This is factor development. * There are two basic ways in which it occurs—(1) by way of existential-pathway-development and (2) by way of nonpathway factor development. * With existential-pathway-development, factor development can occur in two ways, (1) a stage of the development of a factor develops directly into another stage, a direct transformation of one stage into a different stage, and (2) there are intervening stages of the existential-pathway-development between the first stage of the factor and the occurrence of the other stage.

The second basic way in which factor development occurs is by way of nonpathway factor development. Nonpathway factor development is the development of a factor from one change developmental pathway to another, which is in some manner unrelated to the first. A factor can occur in simpler form in one developmental pathway, and occur also in a more complex form in a different more complex developmental pathway. Continuance and sequential-difference play roles in the nature of both extensional development and change development, but not in nonpathway factor development.

Development is difference with enhancement. There are two foundational forms of enhancement, sequential enhancement and combinatorial enhancement. They both play roles in extensional development and in change development, but neither plays a role in nonpathway development. The basic form of sequential enhancement is increasing quantity, while the basic form of combinatorial enhancement is the occurrence of relation in coexistence situations. These two forms of enhancement developmentally interrelate.

The two basic forms of development, extensional and change, also developmentally interrelate. The foundational form of change, continuing-existence, * does not involve extensional-development, but motion does. Motion is matter passing through space, continuously and sequentially changing the spatial place the moving matter occupies. Motion occurs in relation both to the extension of space and to the change that is continuing-existence. Because all developed forms of change involve motion in one way or another, developed forms of existential-pathway-development involve the interrelation of extensional and change developments.

Change development is due to the roles of the initiators. * These are factors that make change happen. They do so by way of consequent-existence. * With consequent-existence, the existence of one factor has the consequence that another factor comes into existence. Because the initiators exist, various forms of change exist, each with associated developments. The existence of space and matter initiate the change that is continuing-existence. Motion initiates ongoing motion. The motion of matter in relation to other matter initiates the change that is emergence. Moving matter in collision relation with blocking matter initiates caused change. And in the through flow situation, the flow of energy alters the organization of matter, and the organization of matter alters the flow of energy, resulting in the major portion of the change that humans experience. Each of these stages of the development of initiation, consequent-existence, and change development is composed of the prior stages plus the factors that make each stage a development form the prior stage.

What have been described here are the foundational aspects of development. Development develops into complex initiation * situations such as biological evolution, ontogeny, and thinking.

(See also Development in What is a Modern Generalist?)

development-of-origin—(1) Any development at which a factor comes into existence. Thereafter the factor can play roles in existential-pathway-development and in situation development. In a single existential-pathway-development, a particular type of factor can originate at two different stages of the pathway development. Each case of the factor in that pathway has its individual development-of-origin. For example, the successive generation of branches along the trunk of a conifer such as a Norfolk Pine. Each set of branches has its individual development-of-origin, as does each branch. Because in many kinds of developmental pathways conditions vary at different stages of pathway development, a particular type of factor can originate at almost any stage of its own factor development, depending on the nature of the pathway. (2) In the general development of reality, the stage at which a factor first occurs. Usually a factor first occurs in simple form, and becomes more complex with factor development. (3) A difference or change in an existential-pathway-development as a consequence of which a factor first occurs in that particular developmental pathway. A particular type of factor can originate at different stages of pathway development in different kinds of developmental pathways.

emergence—Foundationally, universally, and at all stages of its development, emergence is the creation of newly existing patterns of material organization as a consequence of the motion of units of matter relative to one another. This is the core nature of emergence, the feature that makes it emergence—in every case, no matter how simple the situation, no matter how complex. It can occur in situations with as few as two units, or as the entire infinite universe.

At its development-of-origin, emergence occurs as a noncausal simple form of determinate consequent-existence, becoming causal at a later stage when material contact interaction first plays a role in the process. At the stages where there is no contact between units, the structural logic that dominates the nature of emergence is that of space, time, motion, and the relations between them. With stages in which material contact interaction does play a role, the intrinsic qualities of the units in large part determine the structural logic of the creative process and the nature of the resulting pattern of material organization.

existential contextThis relation occurs when one factor provides a situation that allows for the existence of another factor that could not have existence without the provided existential context. The foundational examples are the place-to-be in which matter exists that is provided by immaterial spatial place, and the universal context of change provided by spatial continuing-existence for the change of material continuing-existence and all other forms of change.

existential dependency—This is a relation in which the existence and nature of one factor is dependent on the existence and nature of another factor. There are three basic forms, (a) existential-context-dependency, (b) the existential-pathway-developmental-dependency that occurs with change development, and (c) hierarchic-existential-dependency. The foundation of existential-context-dependency is the manner in which the existence of everything other than space is dependent on the existential context provided by space. The foundation of existential-pathway-developmental-dependency occurs with the continuing-existence of space, and develops with change development. This form of dependency is the manner in which the existence and nature of any stage of a change existential-pathway-development is dependent on the prior development of the situation, on the history of the situation. In its early stages, existential-pathway-developmental-dependency codevelops with initiation. Hierarchic-existential-dependency is the manner in which the whole is dependent on the parts. The existence and nature of the whole is dependent on the existence, nature, and manner of togetherness of the parts. Other than the role of the way in which they came together, the manner of the togetherness of the parts is dependent on the nature of the parts. One form of hierarchic-existential-dependency is structural existential-dependency, wherein the nature of the whole is dependent on the structural relations of the parts, as is so evident with the Eiffel Tower.

existential-pathway-development—Occurs when the existence of that which is prior develops directly into the existence of that which follows. It is the existentially continuous, sequentially connected development of a particular individual factor or situation. It occurs with both extensional development and change development. With extensional development, it involves continuously more existential quantity. With continuously more spatial or material extension, there are accompanying developments between the parts of extension. Extensional existential-pathway-development can occur with material structure such as the additional structural relations that are there with increased extension through an already formed crystal.

As a characteristic of change development, existential-pathway-development is the existentially continuous, sequentially connected development of a particular individual factor or situation during its continuing-existence. The factor or situation can be as simple as space, or an elementary particle, or as complex as the human body, or the infinite universe. The existential-pathway-development that goes with change development is the progressive transformation of a situation—the continuing-existence of space, the growth of a crystal, the growth of a tree, the development of a forest ecosystem on the terrain left behind by a retreating glacier, the origin of a star and its family of planets and other orbitals.

All existential-pathway-developments with a role for change are cases of determinate consequent-existence. The existence and nature of what goes before in change development existential-pathway-development determines the existence and nature of what follows. This form of development is existentially-dependent in that the existence of a developed stage is dependent in one manner or another on the existence of a previous stage.

existential quantity—For there to be existence, there must be some amount or quantity of that which exists. If there is no quantity at all of something that something does not -exist. It will not, it cannot, be-there.

The existential quantity of space is, and must be, voluminal. This voluminality of space can be viewed, for practical purposes, as three-dimensional. In a mental model of space, picture a box-like area that has height, width, and length. Now it is not actually possible to compress space itself, but imagine with the mental model the top and bottom of the selected area coming together. Have them come together all the way, completely, so that there is no height left there. If there is no dimensionality left in the height, no extensional spatial place in the height dimension, there is not anything left there, no spatial place, to have dimensionality in width and length. If there is no existential quantity in one dimension, there is none there in the other dimensions. It is not possible for something to exist that has only one or two dimensions.

The situation is the same for matter. To exist, matter must have some existential quantity, and that existential quantity must be voluminal. This is a requirement for the existence of substantiality. That which moves, can have a contact relation, that can block motion, that can push, that can form changeable pattern, and that can form coherent structure requires, as a factor of its existence, voluminal existential quantity.

Motion is existentially-dependent on matter. It is matter that moves. Any case of motion has an aspect of voluminality based on the voluminality of the matter that is moving. If there is no three-dimensional piece of matter there to move, there cannot be any motion there.

Existential quantity is also required for there to be the two foundational forms of noncoexistent-sequential-difference, that of continuing-existence and that of motion. For something to exist there must be some continuance of that existence, some existential quantity of continuing-existence. The same goes for motion itself. There must be some continuance of motion for there to be motion, some existential quantity of motion.

Just as there is a voluminal aspect of motion, the noncoexistent-sequential-difference of continuing-existence is always that of some voluminal form of existence.

For there to be existence, the amount of existential quantity required can be quite small. But the term does not refer only to the minimum necessary for existence. It also refers more generally to all the existential quantity of something that exists. Thus space, which is infinite, has infinite existential quantity, while a limited unit of matter has a specific limited amount.

extensional development—Extensional development is extension with enhancement. There are two initial developmental pathways for extensional development. One is a codevelopment of extension and dimension, and the other is the greater quantity of sequential-difference that there is with greater quantity of extension at any stage of the development of dimensionality. With the codevelopment path, the mode-of-being of each stage of dimensionality requires a larger quantity of extension than the previous stage—the one-dimensional extension of a linear location, the two-dimensional extension of a plane location, and the three-dimensional extension of three-dimensional spatial place. With the greater quantity of extension path, if a linear, plane, or three-dimensional location has more extension than another location, then that larger location has more sequential-difference. Because space is an immaterial continuum, this developmental pathway is uniform, the greater the extension, the greater the sequential-difference.

Beyond increase in quantity and increase in relation to dimension, further stages of extensional development involve differences in distance and direction relations between spatial places that occur at various distances and directions from a third spatial place. More developments along this path involve differences in relations of area to circumference and volume to surface area that occur at larger quantities of spatial extension.

Because space provides the existential context for all else that exists, and because to not exist in space is to not exist at all, that which exists other than space conforms to the factors of spatial existence. The extensional factors of that which exists conform to the extensional factors of space. Factors of motion and factors of material organization that involve factors of differences in extension conform to the extensional development of space. In this manner extensional development continues up through the material stages of the organization of reality, wherever extension plays a role, establishing there what can and what cannot exist.

factor—A factor is anything that exists and plays a role, whatever its mode-of-being—immaterial, material, organizational in space or in time, causal, or various simple or complex combinations. A factor of a situation is anything whose existence in the situation influences the nature of the situation. A combination of interrelated factors, because it exists, and because it can play a role that influences the nature of a larger situation, is a developed form of factor, a situation.

factor development—Factor development is the enhancement of a factor. Some factors are primally foundational, while other factors have developmental stages of origin. A change in an existential-pathway-development * at which a factor originates is that factor’s development-of-origin. Primally foundational factors do not have developments-of-origin. Developed forms of a factor are cases that are in one way or another enhanced forms of the factor beyond the form it has at its foundation or development-of-origin, whether they occur as a result of existential-pathway-development or nonpathway development. *

initiation—Consequent-existence * of change. Initiation is the source of change in change development, in existential-pathway-development. Nothing comes into existence, by any route whatsoever, without the role of initiation. Change by way of self-organization, emergence, and cause is derived from the roles of the initiators, * from initiation.

With consequent-existence that which goes before determines that which follows. With consequent-existence, existence determines existence. With initiation, existence initiates existence, the existence of change, the existence of new part of noncoexistent-sequential-difference. Initiation is a consequence of the existence of space, of the existence of the primal form of matter, and of the existence of motion, and originates in these cases in determinate noncausal form. It does not become causal until the development-of-origin of that factor.

The development-of-origin of initiation in its most fundamental form is the initiation of the continuing-existence of space as a consequence of the existence of space. Space exists, it is-there, and it continues to be-there, it continues to exist. The continuance is a direct consequence of the existence. It is simply existence continuing to be what it is—existence initiating existence by way of continuing to be existence. It is evident through observation that the parts of continuing-existence are not coexistent. Of spatial continuing-existence, only the present part exists, past part having ceased to be-there, and future part not yet having come into existence. The present part of this noncoexistent-sequential-difference of the continuing-existence of space is constantly changing, with new part continuously coming into being. That is, there is a continuous initiation of new part of continuing-existence. There is a continuous initiation of change.

Initiation occurs in a similar manner with matter. Matter exists, it is-there, and it continues to be-there, it continues to exist. Again, the continuance is a direct consequence of the existence, with continuous initiation of new noncoexistent part of the continuance as matter continues to be-there. There is here also a continuous initiation of change from part to part, this time of material continuing-existence.

The extension of spatial place provides an existential context for the existence of the extensional aspect of matter. Without the existential context of spatial place, matter could not exist. Spatial continuing-existence also provides an existential context, in this case for material continuing-existence. Without spatial continuing-existence, material continuing-existence could not occur. Thus, as matter continues to exist, it does so in the presence of, and in existential-dependency relation with spatial continuing-existence. In every case of material continuing-existence there are always two cases of continuing-existence occurring together. As the factor initiation develops from the spatial case to the material case, the spatial case is still there playing its role.

Space and matter are entirely different in the bases of their modes-of-being, space with its immateriality and matter with its substantiality. Yet each exists and initiates a case of continuing-existence. Motion, while being existentially-dependent on the existence of both space and matter, is still entirely distinct from either of them in its mode-of-being. But it too exists, and continues to do so. Motion, because it exists, initiates its own case of continuing-existence. Because of its existential-dependency relations, when there is initiation of motion continuing-existence, both developmentally prior cases are there playing their roles—three cases of continuing-existence developmentally related.

In addition to initiating a case of continuing-existence, motion initiates the continuance of motion. Because motion is itself a form of change, when it continues to exist there are two forms of change occurring. As a form of noncoexistent-sequential-difference, with only the current part in existence, there is with motion a continuous occurrence of new part, an initiation of new motion by way of motion continuing to exist, by continuing to be what it is.

Why motion exists at all is not known, and there may well be an additional form, or forms, of initiator and consequent initiation associated with its origin. Currently for the modern generalist mode, motion is just there. A generalist observes how it fits in with the rest of the factors of existence and organization, and works on from there.

The noncoexistent-sequential-difference aspect of motion cannot exist without the motion continuing to exist. The noncoexistent-sequential-difference of the motion itself occurs coexistent with and existentially-dependent on the noncoexistent-sequential-difference of motion continuing-existence. There are with motion the roles of four cases of noncoexistent-sequential-difference, three of continuing-existence and that of motion itself. With the development of the first four stages of initiation there is an accumulation of concurrent roles and existential-dependency relations.

The first four stages in the development of initiation are existential-pathway-developments from individual factors. In all four cases the consequences are intrinsic to the factors themselves—their continuing-existence, the continuance of the intrinsic nature of what they individually are. These four cases constitute the first of two general sequences of the development of initiation. The first sequence is characterized by existential-pathway-developments from individual factors, the three initiators, and has intrinsic consequences. These are cases of consequent-existence by way of existence only. The second sequence consists of all developments of initiation thereafter, the development of initiation situations. These are cases of consequent-existence by way of relations between the initiators and other factors. When initiators occur in relation to other factors, the consequences are extrinsic to the initiators themselves, generally consisting of changes in the relations between the initiators and those other factors, or of changes in relations between the various other factors involved in the situations.

The developmentally first stage of initiation situation, as currently understood, is the motion of a single unit of matter through space. During the continuing-existence of space, matter, and motion there are changes, initiated by the motion of the matter, in the occupation, distance, and direction relations between the moving unit and spatial place.

Continuing-existence and motion are intrinsically unidirectional—initiation is unidirectional. Because initiation of change is a form of consequent-existence, and because consequent-existence is determinate, initiation is determinate.

initiation situation—Consequent-existence of change by way of interrelations between the initiators and other factors.

initiator—A factor whose mere existence has the consequence that there is change, that there is noncoexistent-sequential-difference. There are three known initiators, space, the primal form of matter, and motion. They initiate the two known foundational forms of noncoexistent-sequential-difference, continuing-existence and motion. All three initiators initiate continuing-existence, while motion additionally initiates ongoing motion.

When initiators occur in relation to other factors, forming initiation situations, developed forms of change result, for example emergent change and caused change. The mere existence together of the factors that constitute the process of emergence has the consequence that creative change occurs, and the mere existence together of the factors that constitute cause has the consequence that caused change occurs. Sometimes initiation situations are so specific in form and so significant in the roles they play—emergence, the process, creates new pattern of material organization and cause creates effect—that they can be viewed as developed forms of initiators, and can be called initiators as long as their true status as initiation situations is kept in mind.

matterThat which exists that is not immaterial—that has substantiality, that occupies space, that has discontinuous parts, that moves, that can have contact one part with another, that can block motion, that can push one part against another when motion is blocked, that can form groups, that can have emergent pattern of organization, that can form coherent structure, that can develop complexity.

In the case with space a full understanding can be achieved as to what it is and why it exists. Being immaterial it is exceedingly simple. The case is entirely different with matter. It is not known what matter is intrinsically, primally, nor do we have any idea whatsoever about why it exists. Why matter exists is the monumental primary mystery of all reality. Space cannot not-exist because of what it is, but that existence in no way requires the existence of matter. There does not appear to be any reason at all why matter exists. It is just there.

noncoexistent-sequential-difference—Change. Sequential organization in which the components of the sequence are not coexistent. With coexistent-sequential-difference, the sequentially organized components can be, and usually are, existentially independent of one another. With noncoexistent-sequential-difference, the components are sequentially derived, the following parts from the prior parts, and there is thus an existential-dependency relation of what follows on what has gone before. When any particular part of an ongoing noncoexistent sequence is occurring, the following part of the sequence is not there. It has not yet come into being. When that following part is occurring, the prior part is not longer there. It has ceased to exist. The sequential parts of on ongoing change have self-identity because they exist. They are unique and different because they are noncoexistent.

The foundational form of noncoexistent-sequential-difference, of change, is that of spatial continuing-existence (time). Just as the extension of spatial place provides an existential context for the extensional aspects of the mode-of-being of all else that exists, spatial continuing-existence provides an existential-context for all other forms of change. There are two known fundamental origins of change, continuing-existence and motion, with the change that is motion being existentially-dependent on the change that is spatial continuing-existence. All developed forms of change are based on these two.

nonpathway factor development—Nonpathway factor development is the development of a factor from one developmental pathway to another which is in some manner unrelated to the first. In nonpathway factor development, a factor occurs in one pathway in a simpler form and usually at an earlier stage of development of the pathway, and also occurs in a different pathway in a more complex form and usually at a relatively later stage of that pathway. There are two aspects of reality that together result in nonpathway factor development. First, a factor can occur independently in different unrelated existential-pathway-developments. * Second, a factor, as it occurs in progressively more complex situations, tends to occur there in progressively more complex, enhanced, form. Factors often show progressive but independent development as they occur in progressively more complex contexts in diverse unrelated existential-pathway-developments, and the roles a factor can play are often tied to its degree of complexity and developmental stage.

With nonpathway factor development there are no roles for existential continuance, neither that of extension nor that of continuing-existence, from one simpler stage across to another more developed stage in a different situation development, nor is there a role for determinate consequent-existence. * Thus nonpathway factor development does not play the same type of connected progressive role in the developmental organization of reality that are played by extensional development * and change development. *

This form of development is usually existentially independent. * An exception to this existential independence occurs in cases of requisite existential context * relations. For example, the development from the extension of space to the extension of primal matter is a nonpathway factor development in that the reasons substantial extension exists are unrelated to the reasons immaterial spatial extension exists, and yet the extension of primal matter must exist within and conform to the existential context provided by spatial extension. The extension of primal matter is existentially-dependent on the extension of spatial extension, but it is not an existential-pathway-developmental-dependency.

place—Location in, part of, or entirety of existential quantity, as in location in, part of, or the entirety of voluminal spatial extension, and point in, limited sequence of, or all of continuing-existence.

Spatial place is the foundational form. It is pure place—nothing but place. All other cases of place, including the place that occurs with spatial continuing-existence, are developed forms. The place of space itself is the foundation of the development of place involving extension and coexistent-sequential-difference as these factors occur with matter and material organization. The place of spatial continuing-existence is the foundation of the development of place involving noncoexistent-sequential-difference, causal relations, and process. These two developmental sequences interrelate.

The place of spatial extension and the place of spatial continuing-existence provide existential contexts for the forms of place that occur as aspects of the existence of matter and motion. The qualities of the other forms of place conform to the qualities of the spatially based forms.

Developed forms of place occur with patterns of material organization, such as with the place of units within a group, either an open population of separate units or the components of a coherent structure. There is place within coherent matter, and also on its outer surface—material place, which is based on the existential quantity of the matter, place that moves about through space with the matter. Material place, based on substantiality, occupies immaterial spatial place. As an example think of a check mark on a sheet of paper. The mark occurs at a particular part of the paper, at a particular place on it. If the paper is held up and moved back and forth through space, the mark remains at its place on the material surface of the paper, while the material of the paper, the place on it, and the mark all pass through and momentarily occupy a sequence of spatial place.

Developments-of-origin occur at specific places in the noncoexistent-sequential-difference of the existential-pathway-developments in which those developments-of-origin occur.

primal— That which is primal is the foundation of existence, of reality. That which is primal cannot not-exist—it cannot be created, nor can it be destroyed. That which is primal has always existed, and will always continue to exist. Only space is known for sure to be a primal-form-of-existence. The most primitive form of matter is here considered primal (a) because the intrinsic reasons for the existence of the substantial form-of-existence are independent of the intrinsic reasons for the existence of the immaterial form-of-existence of space, and (b) because space and matter together appear to be sufficient as the basis of all that is evident to exist. But because of the complex factors of the intrinsic nature of matter, and because there does not appear to be any reason for matter to exist at all, its status as a primal-form-of-existence is suspect. The suspicion is that there are probably at least two more primitive, possibly primal, forms-of-existence that together constitute matter.

self-identity—What something is intrinsically. What something is in and of itself at any specific point in its ongoing existence. Self-identity includes all the qualities possessed by something that exists, all the factors that play roles in its existence and intrinsic nature, from its primal existential factors, to the factors of the organization of its components, to the features or qualities it has as a whole.

self-organization—When factors intrinsic to a prior stage of development determine organizational factors intrinsic to the following stage, that is self-organization. Self-organization progresses by way of existential-pathway-development. It is self-organization, not disorganization. With the foundational forms, those that occur with the initiation of the organization of the noncoexistent-sequential-difference of continuing-existence and that of motion, it is the creation of orderly sequential relations. With the development-of-origin of emergence, the development of self-organization is not so simple. Emergent pattern of organization occurs with both the coming together of units and with the dispersal of units. The dispersal of a group of units is essentially the destruction of the group quality, essentially the disorganization of the group as a group. This is not what is meant by the term self-organization. The coming together of units creates a form of organization, a group, a primitive form of order. With the origin of emergence, self-organization becomes a form of emergence, the form involving the combining of units.

Self-organization, then, occurs when factors intrinsic to a prior stage of development determine factors intrinsic to the following stage that have some aspect of order. The order can be quite regular, as in the structure of a crystal, or complexly irregular, as in the molecular biology of a living cell. The development from fertilized egg to adult organism, biological evolution, and ecological succession are different forms of highly developed self-organization. Some dispersal events can have factors of self-organization, resulting, for example, in the organization of a nova shock wave and the patterns of organization that sometimes occur in nova remnants.

  sequential-difference —See coexistent-sequential-difference* and noncoexistent-sequential-difference*.

sequential enhancement—This is a form of developmental enhancement that occurs with any sequential increase of quantity. In its simpler modes it is the enhancement that occurs in the form of more. The foundational form occurs with increase of spatial extension—greater spatial place has more extension. Spread out from any spatial point location is ever greater extension. At this stage it is a factor of extensional development. Because space is immaterial, spatial extension is continuous, therefore, increasing quantity at its foundational level is continuous and without units, nonnumerical. Sequential enhancement, at its foundation, is continuous.

With spatial extension goes coexistent-sequential-difference—the more extension the more sequential-difference. Sequential enhancement occurs next as a factor of spatial continuing-existence. Here again the situation is continuous, and so is the enhancement. With spatial continuing-existence goes noncoexistent-sequential-difference—the more continuing-existence, the more sequential-difference. There is a stage with the extension of a primal unit of matter, and another with the continuing-existence of matter. These stages are existentially-dependent on the equivalent factors of the spatial context. The next stages occur with continuing motion and the continuing-existence of motion, and with both there is noncoexistent-sequential-difference—the more motion and the more motion continuing-existence, the more of the these two cases of sequential-difference. The stage with material existential quantity will have a factor of continuity involved, and the stages based on material continuing-existence, motion, and motion continuing-existence are all continuous without units, nonnumerical.

All these stages involve foundational forms of sequential-difference. With the extensional cases the parts of the increasing quantity are coexistent, and with the other cases they are noncoexistent. The extensional cases are extensional development and do not involve change, while continuing-existence and motion are cases of change development.

The development of sequential enhancement has next a series of stages involving changes in extensional relations between a moving unit and spatial place and between a moving unit and a static unit, in which the role of sequential enhancement in extensional development and its role in change development occur in one on one relation with one another. The enhancement that occurs at the development-of-origin of emergence, the occurrence of new pattern of material organization due to the motion of a unit and the resulting changes of extensional relations, is a case of sequential enhancement because all the components of the situation are already coexistent.

In change development there are sequential enhancements where the previous parts no longer exist, such as continuing-existence and motion. There are also cases of sequential enhancement where the previous parts still exist. This form of sequential enhancement is accumulative enhancement. In these cases there occurs a coexistence relation of the newly added component with all the previous components of the sequence. Where there is coexistence, there is relation, and thus combinatorial enhancement. There are cases of change development where sequential enhancement, in the form of accumulative enhancement, plays a role in combinatorial enhancement.

simultaneity—Simultaneity is a situation in which two or more factors exist during the same part of the continuing-existence of space. Coexistence is a situation in which two or more factors exist in space, and do so during the same part of the continuing-existence of space. Coexistent factors continue to exist simultaneously. With coexistence the relation involves the extension of space, and with simultaneity the relation involves the continuing-existence of space. With coexistence there are extensional relations such as direction and distance, while with simultaneity there are relations of the dual occurrence of noncoexistent-sequential-difference such as concurrent occurrence of new part.

The continuing-existence of a factor provides the factor of noncoexistent-sequential-difference which provides the existential context for change in the self-identity of the factor or for change in relation to the factor. The simultaneity of the two cases of continuing-existence of two coexistent factors provides the context for change in the relations between the coexistent factors. Because the development-of-origin for emergence is the change of extensional relations between units of matter, the simultaneity of the continuing-existence of the units plays a required role in providing the existential context for that change. Of course the simultaneity of the continuing-existence of the units, and its role in providing for change between the units, occurs simultaneous with and conforms to the foundational existential context for change provided by spatial continuing-existence.

supra-organizational factor—An emergent factor the existence of which is based on at least one factor that is different in nature from organizational factors such as positional orientation or adjacent, direction, and distance relations. In the foundational development of reality, substantiality plays roles in emergence situations that result in the occurrence of supra-organizational factors such as contact, blocking, and push (causal interaction). Coherence (a developed form of interaction) is a more developed form of supra-organizational factor.

time—The continuing-existence of space.

Space exists, and it continues to exist. The continuing-existence of space is a consequence of the existence of space. Continuing-existence is a form of change, a form of noncoexistent-sequential-difference, with only the current part of the ongoing change being there, occurring now, the prior part ceasing to exist as the current part occurs and the following part having not yet come into existence. Because continuing-existence is nothing more than continuance-of-being, it is uniform and unidirectional in its occurrence.

Space is the foundation of reality. It provides a place-to-be, an existential context, for all else that exists—or that could possibly exist. Because of what it is, space is infinite, and intrinsically, cannot be otherwise. Spatial place is all the place there is. To not exist in space is to not exist at all. The extensional aspects of the being of all that exists occur within, occupy, and conform to the extensional aspects of space. All that exists other than space has an existential-dependency relation with space and cannot exist independently of space.

In like manner, spatial continuing-existence provides an existential-context for the continuing-existence of all else that exists. All qualities of the continuing-existence of that which exists other than space occur with and conform to the qualities of spatial continuing-existence. The continuing-existence of anything that exists has an existential-dependency relation with spatial continuing-existence, and cannot occur independently of spatial continuing-existence.

Because space is infinite with all parts coexistent, the continuing-existence of space is simultaneous throughout that infinite continuum of place.

transformation point —A point in the existential-pathway-development of a situation at which change occurs that is due solely to the ongoing changing relations between the intrinsic qualities of the components of the situation. At transformation points factors preexisting in the situation can play new roles, but no extrinsic or added component is required to play a role in the initiation of the change.

universeRealistically, the totality of all that exists. It has two known primal or foundational components, space and matter. Space is immaterial, voluminal (three-dimensional) place. The primal intrinsic nature of matter is unknown, but something is-there, exists, that is not immaterial. The universe is infinite because space is infinite.

voluminalityTo be voluminal is to have extension in width, height, and depth, to have three-dimensional area as an intrinsic quality of mode-of-being or manner of existence.

Voluminality is a required existential factor. To not have extension in width, or height, or depth, is to not be there to have extension in the other two. To not be voluminal, or have a voluminal aspect of intrinsic existence, is to not exist. To exist at all, there must be some existential quantity of that which exists. Existential quantity is always voluminal or has a voluminal aspect to its mode-of-being.

 

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©2004 Vincent Vesterby